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WHO: Tobacco lobby blocking anti-smoking measures

Measures aimed at curbing tobacco-related deaths now reach more than 60 percent of the world's population, the WHO says. But attempts by the tobacco lobby to sway government policy remain a "deadly barrier." Tobacco controls and warnings about the dangers of smoking have quadrupled worldwide over the past decade, saving millions of lives, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In a report on the global tobacco epidemic the UN agency said tobacco was the world's leading cause of preventable death, killing 7 million people each year. "That's equivalent to wiping out the entire population of Bulgaria or Paraguay every year. That's not acceptable," WHO Director General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus said at the report's launch in New York. Victims include 890,000 people who die annually from second-hand smoke exposure. In an effort to bring down those numbers, countries accounting for 4.7 billion people, or around 63 percent of the world's population, have implemented at least one measure recommended by the WHO, including bans on advertising, tax hikes, graphic health warnings and anti-smoking legislation. That's a "dramatic increase in life-saving tobacco control policies in the last decade," the report said, recalling that in 2007 only 15 percent of the world's population was covered. Powerful interests But despite certain control measures being rolled out in more places, the WHO pointed out that tobacco companies seeking to influence health policy continued to pose a serious problem. The report accuses tobacco giants of using deceitful tactics such as "exaggerating the economic importance of the tobacco industry, discrediting proven science and using litigation to intimidate governments." It said such interference had stalled health policy developments, such as the creation of smoke-free public places or plain packaging, in many countries. It also warned that countries with partly state-owned tobacco companies should take steps to protect important health policy decisions from their commercial interests. One example is Japan, where the government has a stake in Japan Tobacco Inc. "I think in this special situation there might be a conflict of interest in economic revenues from a partly state-owned industry and health of the population," Kerstin Schotte, a WHO medical officer, told reporters in New York. Significant progress While almost 50 percent of the global population in 78 countries are exposed to strong graphic warnings on cigarette packs, only 15 percent live in countries that have implemented bans on advertising and promotion, the report said. It added that the most effective form of tobacco control - price increases - is one of the least used worldwide. At the report's launch, WHO director of prevention of noncommunicable diseases Dr Douglas Bettcher said developing countries had made significant progress in introducing warnings on packets and banning smoking in workplaces in recent years. He also praised efforts in Britain, Norway, Australia, and New Zealand, but pointed out that Germany is one of just two EU countries not to have complete advertising bans in force.

Measures aimed at curbing tobacco-related deaths now reach more than 60 percent of the world’s population, the WHO says. But attempts by the tobacco lobby to sway government policy remain a “deadly barrier.” Tobacco controls and warnings about the dangers of smoking have quadrupled worldwide over the past decade, saving millions of lives, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). ... Read More »

Malaysia braces for more Zika infections

Health authorities in Malaysia have warned of an increase in Zika cases after the Southeast Asian country reported its first local infection. Neighboring Singapore, meanwhile, has seen a surge in new infections. Health Minister Subramaniam Sathasivam said Sunday that new cases were bound to emerge now that Zika had entered communities. The warning came a day after authorities confirmed the death of a 61-year-old Zika patient in the eastern state of Sabah in Borneo. Health officials said the man was the first patient to contract the virus locally, but that heart complications, rather than Zika, had caused his death. Subramaniam said authorities were working to trace the man's movements to determine other possible sources of infection. "This patient has not been to any other country where a large number of cases had been reported," the minister said on his Facebook page. "This means that this person contracted the disease locally. "It suggests that there are other infected people in the community who are potential sources of infection," Subramaniam added. The 61-year-old was only the country's second confirmed Zika case. The first reported patient, a 58-year-old woman, was infected after traveling to neighboring Singapore last week. Malaysian outbreak in the cards The Zika virus, mainly transmitted by the bite of the Aedes mosquito, spread rapidly through a number of Latin American countries in 2015, prompting the World Health Organization to declare a public health emergency. Cases have since emerged in the US, Africa, Asia and the Pacific, but Brazil remains the hardest hit. Although Zika causes no symptoms in most people, it is considered particularly dangerous for pregnant women. The virus has been shown to cause microcephaly - a birth defect associated with abnormally small brains and heads in new born babies - as well as neurological disorders in some adults. Health authorities in Malaysia raised concerns about Zika after Singapore reported last week that it had more than 200 cases of the virus. Fight against dengue Malaysia's health system has already been stretched thin by dengue fever, which is also spread by the Aedes mosquito and can be fatal. Since the beginning of last year, the virus has infected almost 200,000 people and killed more than 500 in the Southeast Asian country. Amar Singh, head of the pediatric department at Malaysia's Hospital Raja Permaisuri Bainun, warned that this was one reason why Malaysia faced a much tougher struggle against Zika than its smaller neighbor. "Zika will spread even faster in Malaysia than Singapore because our Aedes volume is so much higher and the breeding grounds are enormous," he said. Malaysia, home to almost 30 million people, has boosted its efforts to screen travelers from abroad and increased insecticide spraying to kill mosquitoes. Health Minister Subramaniam on Sunday also urged Malaysians to clean up areas that could serve as breeding grounds for mosquitoes.

Health authorities in Malaysia have warned of an increase in Zika cases after the Southeast Asian country reported its first local infection. Neighboring Singapore, meanwhile, has seen a surge in new infections. Health Minister Subramaniam Sathasivam said Sunday that new cases were bound to emerge now that Zika had entered communities. The warning came a day after authorities confirmed the ... Read More »

Zika exacerbated by ‘massive policy failure,’ says WHO chief

The head of the UN's public health body has blamed inadequate mosquito control policy for the proliferation of the virus. Europe is at risk of a Zika outbreak, according to the WHO's latest assessment. WHO Secretary-General Margaret Chan on Monday blamed "massive policy failure" for the spread of the mosquito-borne virus Zika across many parts of North and South America. "The spread of Zika, the resurgence of dengue and the emerging threat from chikungunya are the price being paid for a massive policy failure that dropped the ball on mosquito control in the 1970s," Chan said during her speech to the 69th World Health Assembly. The WHO chief noted that the "failure to provide universal access to sexual and family planning services" revealed an "extreme consequence" of the Zika virus outbreak. "The rapidly evolving outbreak of Zika warns us that an old disease that slumbered for six decades in Africa and Asia can suddenly wake up on a new continent to cause a global health emergency," Chan added. In April, US officials announced that that there was a likely link between Zika and a rise in newborns with microcephaly, a rare condition resulting in a smaller head than normal. The WHO has investigated the link between the virus and the medical condition. More than 1.5 million people have been infected with Zika in Brazil, with over 1,000 cases of microcephaly registered since last year, according to AFP news agency. The mosquito-borne virus has also been reported in several countries in the Americas and the Caribbean, including Colombia, Haiti and Mexico. Europe alert Earlier this month, the WHO officials warned "there is a risk of spread of Zika virus disease in the European region." The UN's public health body said an outbreak was more likely in countries where Aedes mosquitoes are present. "With this risk assessment, we at WHO want to inform and target preparedness work in each European country based on its level of risk," said Dr. Zsuzsanna Jakab, the WHO's regional director for Europe. "We call particularly on countries at higher risk to strengthen their national capacities and prioritize the activities that will prevent a large Zika outbreak," added Jakab.

The head of the UN’s public health body has blamed inadequate mosquito control policy for the proliferation of the virus. Europe is at risk of a Zika outbreak, according to the WHO’s latest assessment. WHO Secretary-General Margaret Chan on Monday blamed “massive policy failure” for the spread of the mosquito-borne virus Zika across many parts of North and South America. ... Read More »

UN health body calls for closing the immunization gap

The WHO's 2016 World Immunization Week promotes vaccines as the most successful, safe and cost-effective way to stop deaths from preventable diseases. Millions of people worldwide lack the most routine immunizations. The world is filled with nasty, but preventable, illnesses, some of which can cause disability or even death: human papillomavirus (which can lead to cervical cancer), diphtheria, hepatitis B, measles, mumps, pertussis (whooping cough), pneumonia, polio, rotavirus, rubella and tetanus. During World Immunization Week, held from April 24 to 30, the UN's health body wants to remind adults and children that a simple shot can prevent these diseases and many more. To do so, the World Health Organization (WHO) has scheduled a series of regional events and vaccination campaigns to showcase successes and highlight areas where global efforts need to focus. A priority for WHO is the estimated 18.7 million infants worldwide who have not been immunized against diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus - vaccines that are routine in many nations. Sixty percent of those children are in just 10 countries. In Africa's "meningitis belt," running from Senegal to Ethiopia, a vaccine introduced five years ago has already been given to 230 million people. In what WHO describes as a "game changer," potential new vaccines against dengue fever, Ebola and malaria could define the future of immunization programs and health care. Missing goals Despite gains across several fronts, the world is lagging on achieving the goals set forth in a 2012 Global Vaccine Action Plan. Only one of the six targets - introducing new or underutilized vaccines to at least 90 low- or middle-income countries - was on track to meet the goal of 2020. Coverage for a triple vaccine for diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis rose to 83 percent globally, but 65 countries are still below the 90 percent target. The goal of eliminating maternal and neonatal tetanus by 2015 was missed, as was wiping out measles from four regions and eliminating rubella from two regions. Half of the children around the globe have not received a rubella vaccine. In 2015, Africa moved closer to eliminating the disease after Nigeria was certified polio-free. The disease now remains endemic to only Afghanistan and Pakistan, two of the most dangerous places in the world for health workers. In a major step, a new polio vaccine regimen was introduced this month around the globe as part of a final push to finish off the disease.

The WHO’s 2016 World Immunization Week promotes vaccines as the most successful, safe and cost-effective way to stop deaths from preventable diseases. Millions of people worldwide lack the most routine immunizations. The world is filled with nasty, but preventable, illnesses, some of which can cause disability or even death: human papillomavirus (which can lead to cervical cancer), diphtheria, hepatitis B, ... Read More »

WHO launches worldwide effort to completely eliminate polio

Officials hope a coordinated effort to launch a new vaccine worldwide will finally eliminate the polio virus. But going from a handful of cases to absolute zero is more difficult than it sounds, and will cost billions. More than 150 countries and territories launched a new effort on Sunday that health experts hope will lead to the complete eradication of the polio virus within the next year or two. Polio cases are currently just a fraction of the 1 percent of cases known in 1988, when 350,000 cases were recorded in 125 countries around the world. But eliminating the last strands of the virus could prove tricky, in part because it involves a well-synchronized switching of vaccines across the globe - and that starts today, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The switch needs to be coordinated to prevent outbreaks in places where the old vaccine is no longer being used. The changeover is due to be completed by May 1. Thousands of monitors will be deployed around the world to confirm that the problem vaccine is no longer in use, according to the WHO. The old (trivalent) vaccine is geared to inoculate people from three strands of the virus. But the second strand has already been successfully eliminated in nature and now only exists through the vaccine. This is now the cause of most vaccine-caused infections, as it can gestate in the gut and be passed on to others via fecal-contaminated water. Wild polio The wild version of the virus now exists only in Afghanistan and Pakistan. The new (bivalent) vaccine is designed to inoculate recipients from only two strands (one and three) of the virus. There have only been 12 cases worldwide this year, in Pakistan and Afghanistan, so the prospect of spending $5.5 billion (4.9 billion euros - the cost estimated by the Global Polio Eradication Initiative) to eliminate polio may seem exorbitant. But Michel Zaffran, the WHO's director of polio eradication, said even more money will need to be spent to keep the disease from coming back. "Taking our foot off the pedal now could mean polio will within a few years spread straight back into large parts of the world and create 100,000 or 200,000 cases," Zaffran said. "The job has not been done and will not be done until we have fully eradicated the virus." This is not the first time health officials have come close to eliminating the virus only to suffer setbacks. The GPEI was set up in 1988 with the aim of eliminating the virus by the year 2000. That effort failed but experts say the effort is worth the cost of eliminating the virus once and for all.

Officials hope a coordinated effort to launch a new vaccine worldwide will finally eliminate the polio virus. But going from a handful of cases to absolute zero is more difficult than it sounds, and will cost billions. More than 150 countries and territories launched a new effort on Sunday that health experts hope will lead to the complete eradication of ... Read More »

Top scientists pledge to share Zika data to hasten global response

The world's top scientists have pledged to share quickly and freely all data, research and expertise into the Zika virus in a bid to combat the disease. Even as cases increase, much remains unknown about the virus. Top research institutions, funders and publishers said in a statement on Wednesday they would come together to share data in response to the public health emergency posed by the rapid spread of the Zika virus. "The arguments for sharing data and the consequences of not doing so [have been] ... thrown into stark relief by the Ebola and Zika outbreaks," the signatories wrote. "In the context of a public health emergency of international concern, there is an imperative on all parties to make any information available that might have value in combating the crisis." The pledge was signed by among others the journals "Nature," "Science" and "The Lancet," the Chinese Academy of Sciences, France's Institut Pasteur, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development. Much remains unknown about the mosquito-borne Zika virus, which has caused international alarm, especially in Latin America and its epicenter in Brazil. Scientists are investigating links between the virus and newborn babies with microcephaly, or unusually small heads that can lead to death or developmental problems. A link between the virus and microcephaly has not been definitively confirmed but is suspected. There is no vaccine for the disease, which in most cases only causes mild flu-like symptoms. The publication of scientific and medical research findings in peer-reviewed journals is traditionally a long and slow process, hampering the rapid international response needed during a global health emergency. A study published in the "New England Journal of Medicine" on Wednesday strengthened the case of a link between the virus and the birth defect after the Zika was found in the brain of an aborted fetus of a European woman who had become pregnant while living in Brazil. Zika and abortion Meanwhile, the World Health Organization on Wednesday issued guidance to women on how to protect themselves from the virus, even as it said most women in areas where the virus in prevalent would have "normal infants." The UN agency, which declared a health emergency on February 1, advised women, especially those who are pregnant, to take precautions against mosquitoes and to use condoms during intercourse. The spread of the virus has also been linked to sexual contact. The spread of the virus through sexual contact and the link with microcephaly have raised the issue of abortion, especially in Latin America where the practice is widely restricted and the Roman Catholic Church holds considerable sway. According to Church doctrine, life begins at conception and condom use is prohibited. WHO on Wednesday said, "women who wish to terminate a pregnancy due to a fear of microcephaly should have access to safe abortion services to the full extent of the law." The UN health body said early ultrasounds cannot detect microcephaly, "except in extreme cases." This is significant because even in countries where abortion is legal, there are often restrictions beyond a certain time in the pregnancy.

The world’s top scientists have pledged to share quickly and freely all data, research and expertise into the Zika virus in a bid to combat the disease. Even as cases increase, much remains unknown about the virus. Top research institutions, funders and publishers said in a statement on Wednesday they would come together to share data in response to the ... Read More »

WHO declares Guinea free of Ebola virus

Guinea will remain under a 90-day period of heightened surveillance to ensure that any new cases are identified quickly. The virus killed more than 2,500 people in the West-African country. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared Guinea to be free of Ebola, two years after the outbreak started in the country and eventually spread to other West African countries such as Liberia and Sierra Leone. Forty-two days have passed since the last person confirmed to have Ebola virus disease tested negative for the second time, the UN agency said in a statement on Tuesday. Guinea would remain under a 90-day period of heightened surveillance to ensure that any new cases are identified quickly so that the virus can be prevented from spreading further. The announcement comes as a huge relief for Guinea, one of the poorest countries in world. The West-African country shot to global prominence as the home to the outbreak's first victim - a two-year old boy. The virus then spread to neighboring Liberia and Sierra Leone - and, in isolated or sporadic cases, to another seven countries. "This is the first time that all three countries - Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone - have stopped the original chains of transmission that were responsible for starting this devastating outbreak two years ago," said Dr Matshidiso Moeti, WHO Regional Director for Africa. Because of Ebola's unusually long incubation period, with the time from infection to visible symptoms sometimes lasting weeks, declaring an end to the virus has proven problematic. Liberia is now the only country still awaiting a declared end to the epidemic - although it has reached the WHO's 42-day watermark before, only to register new cases. Without any further positive Ebola tests, Liberia would be declared clear again on January 14, 2016. The virus claimed more than 11,000 lives, from the nearly 29,000 recorded cases, according to WHO figures from December 20. More than 2,500 people died in Guinea alone. 'Best year-end present' "It's the best year-end present that God could give to Guinea, and the best news that Guineans could hope for," Alama Kambou Dore, an Ebola survivor, told the AFP news agency. "From 2013 to 2015, Guineans suffered, they lived and survived, they endured, they were stigmatized, rejected, even humiliated because of this disease, which leapt out of nowhere." The WHO said there had been 10 new small Ebola outbreaks or flares in the region between March and November this year but they appeared to have been due to the re-emergence of a persistent virus from among the survivors. The Ebola virus may persist in the semen of some male survivors for as long as 9-12 months. "The coming months will be absolutely critical," said Dr Bruce Aylward, the WHO's special representative for the Ebola response. "This is the period when the countries need to be sure that they are fully prepared to prevent, detect and respond to any new cases." Aylward added that the persistence of the virus in survivors may give rise to new Ebola cases in 2016.

Guinea will remain under a 90-day period of heightened surveillance to ensure that any new cases are identified quickly. The virus killed more than 2,500 people in the West-African country. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared Guinea to be free of Ebola, two years after the outbreak started in the country and eventually spread to other West African countries ... Read More »

Alarm in Ghana over rise in unsafe abortions

Unsafe abortions put women's lives unnecessarily at risk. In Ghana, the high fatality rate is prompting calls for the easing of the abortion law so safe termination of pregnancy is within reach of all who desire it. Ten years ago, at the age of 18, Adease got pregnant. The young Ghanaian wasn't married and so her parents forced her to have an abortion. It was an ordeal, she told DW. "I walk into a small room and there were people lying on the floor and I had to pass them and lie down on a metal bed with a pillow. I wake up and I am feeling very weak and I can't really help myself. So the nurse took me out, my dad was there, and my dad took me home. We got home, I was bleeding all night. For a week, I was still bleeding," she said. Adease recovered but probably only because her father took her later to a proper medical facility. Another Ghanaian woman, Diane, now aged 35, has undergone eleven separate abortions, all unsafe and all carried out by herself with only her boyfriend at her side. "I didn't have any medicine or anything, the only thing I go to buy is pain killers, until the last one I did - for that one I ended up in hospital," she said. Diane also knew someone who didn't survive an unsafe abortion. "I had one friend, she didn't come back again, she died." A report by Ghana's Adolescent Health and Development Program said that the number of unsafe abortions in 2009 was over 8,000. By 2010, the figure had climbed to more than 10,000 and the following year, it was as high as 16,000. More recent figures were not available. Unfriendly facilities Unintended pregnancies are generally not socially acceptable in Ghana and official health centers can be forbidding places for young pregnant women. They may feel less intimidated in a less formal environment - sometimes with tragic consequences. Vincentia Mottey, who teaches at the Korle Bu Nursing and Midwifery Training College, admitted that medical facilities in Ghana have an image problem. "A teenager or underage person who is not married, coming alone, feels there is a stigma attached to it, so we need to make the facility itself more friendly," she said. Abortion is legal in Ghana but there are restrictions. If the fetus is damaged, if the pregnancy is endangering a woman's life or if it is the result of rape, then abortion is permitted under Ghanaian law. But most pregnant women wanting abortions don't fall into one of those three categories. The Marie Stopes medical charity with its slogan "children by choice, not by chance" is well known for its efforts to promote family planning in Ghana. It also carries out safe abortions. Maternal mortality Health rights activist Raphael Godlove Ahenu Junior said laws and attitudes must change. "Unsafe abortion is the second most common cause of maternal mortality," he told DW. But policy makers may feel they have to tread cautiously because of faith-based opposition to liberalizing abortion. According to figures released by the World Health Organization in July 2015, an estimated 22 million unsafe abortions are estimated to take place worldwide each year, almost all in low- and middle-income countries. In new guidelines on health care, the WHO noted "the unwillingness of some health care professionals to provide safe abortion and post-abortion care."

Unsafe abortions put women’s lives unnecessarily at risk. In Ghana, the high fatality rate is prompting calls for the easing of the abortion law so safe termination of pregnancy is within reach of all who desire it. Ten years ago, at the age of 18, Adease got pregnant. The young Ghanaian wasn’t married and so her parents forced her to ... Read More »

Ebola death in Sierra Leone leads to mass quarantine

A village in northern Sierra Leone has been placed under quarantine after a post-mortem test revealed a man had died from Ebola. Several hospitals failed to recognize him as a potential victim of the disease. Earlier this week the World Health Organization (WHO) announced the fewest weekly Ebola infections for over a year in West Africa. However the WHO also said it was bracing for a significant new outbreak in Sierra Leone, which alongside Guinea and Liberia, is one of the worst affected countries. In the week up to Sunday 26 July, there were four confirmed cases in Guinea and three in Sierra Leone. Those three included a patient who died after travelling from the capital Freetown to the northern district of Tonkolili. He was described by the WHO as posing "a substantial risk of further transmission." The patient had only been confirmed Ebola-positive after post-mortem testing. On Friday the WHO said more than 500 contacts had been identified "several of whom are deemed to be high risk." Investigations were continuing to establish the source of infection and trace all contacts. According to Hassan Abdul Sesay, a member of parliament from the region where the patient died, the man had traveled to his home village to mark the end of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan. Northern Tonkolili district had not had a single case of Ebola in five months. The man was treated for fever at a local hospital but authorities did not consider it necessary to call the Ebola emergency number. Ebola's main symptom is fever which is also found in other illnesses such as malaria and typhoid. Sierra Leoneans 'fed up' The spokesman of the National Ebola Response Center, Sidi Tunis, told DW's correspondent in Freetown, Murtala Kamara, that a total of 624 people had been placed under quarantine, 503 in the village where the man died, the others in other villages where he had sought treatment as well as in the capital. Kamara said that the level of awareness in the country was high, largely due to information provided by local media. "Most people you talk to, even children, they know about the disease and how to take preventive measures." But the length of time it was taking to finally eliminate the disease was taking its toll. "To tell you the truth, the awareness is there but the disease has been in Sierra Leone for the past year and people are fed up. They want to see Ebola end. People are tired." Kamara said. Vaccine breakthrough? Good news came on Friday with the publication of results of the first efficacy test of the VSV-ZEBOV vaccine among people living in a high-danger zone. Study results published in the medical journal The Lancet showed that of 4,123 high-risk people in Guinea vaccinated immediately after someone close to them fell ill with Ebola, none caught the virus. The test, backed by drug firm Merck, the WHO and the governments of Canada, Norway and Guinea prompted the WHO to declare that the world is "on the verge of an effective Ebola vaccine." WHO Director Margaret Chan said it was a potential "game changer." Trials are set to continue. The death toll from the current outbreak of Ebola in West Africa exceeds 11,000.

A village in northern Sierra Leone has been placed under quarantine after a post-mortem test revealed a man had died from Ebola. Several hospitals failed to recognize him as a potential victim of the disease. Earlier this week the World Health Organization (WHO) announced the fewest weekly Ebola infections for over a year in West Africa. However the WHO also ... Read More »

South Korea announces three new MERS cases

جنوبی کوریا میں اتوار کے روز میرس وائرس کے مزید تین نئے مریض سامنے آئے ہیں۔ اس کے ساتھ ہی اس ملک میں اس وائرس سے متاثرہ افراد کی تعداد 169 ہو گئی ہے۔ گزشتہ روز سیئول حکام نے بتایا تھا کہ جمعے سے ہفتے تک ملک بھر میں میرس وائرس کا کوئی نیا کیس سامنے نہیں آیا تھا۔ ہفتے کی شب جنوبی کوریا کی وزارت صحت نے اس وائرس کے نتیجے میں ملک میں ہونے والی 25 ویں ہلاکت کی تصدیق کر دی۔ ادھر تھائی لینڈ میں حکام نے بتایا ہے کہ گزشتہ ہفتے وہاں بھی ایک شہری کے اس وائرس کا شکار ہو جانے کی تصدیق ہو گئی۔ اس شخص کے ساتھ رابطے میں آنے والے افراد کی تعداد 175 تھی، تاہم ابھی تک پورے ملک میں اس ایک مریض کے علاوہ میرس کا کوئی دوسرا کیس سامنے نہیں آیا۔

South Korea’s Health Ministry has reported three news cases of MERS. The announcement comes a day after no new cases were reported, the first time in nearly a month. Hopes were high on Saturday after South Korea announced the first day in which no new cases of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) virus had been recorded in nearly a ... Read More »

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